Category:1026 Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe
|Approved and Pre-Qualified List|
|Qualified Fabricators of Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe|
|Current General Services Specifications (MGS) By Subject|
This article establishes procedures for inspecting reinforced concrete pipe and the approval of modified or special designs for reinforced concrete pipe. Refer to Sec 1026 for MoDOT’s specifications. The Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP) Inspection Guide and Laboratory Testing Guidelines for Sec 1026 are also available.
- 1 1026.1 Apparatus
- 2 1026.2 Procedure
- 2.1 1026.2.1 Reinforced Concrete Culvert Storm Drain and Sewer Pipe
- 2.2 1026.2.2 Material
- 2.3 1026.2.3 Identification Marking
- 2.4 1026.2.4 Random Sampling
- 2.5 1026.2.5 Field Inspection and Testing for Acceptance
- 2.6 1026.2.6 Fabrication
- 2.6.1 1026.2.6.1 Design
- 2.6.2 1026.2.6.2 Placing Reinforcement
- 2.6.3 1026.2.6.3 Concrete
- 2.6.4 1026.2.6.4 Permissible Variations
- 2.6.5 1026.2.6.5 Repairs
- 3 1026.3 Special or Modified Designs
- 4 1026.4 Report (Records)
- 5 1026.5 Tables
- 5.1 Table 1026.5.1 Diameter Dimensional Tolerances (English)
- 5.2 Table 1026.5.2 Diameter Dimensional Tolerances (Metric)
- 5.3 Table 1026.5.3 Permissible Variations in Laying Length of Two Opposite Sides of Pipe (English)
- 5.4 Table 1026.5.4 Permissible Variations in Laying Length of Two Opposite Sides of Pipe (Metric)
- 6 1026.6 Report of Tests on Concrete Pipe
(a) Micrometer capable of measuring to 0.0001 in. (0.00254 mm) and accurate to within at least 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm).
(b) Leaf gauge 0.01 in. (250 μm) in thickness, ground to a point 1/16 in. (1580 μm) wide and tapered 1/4 in. (250 μm) per in.
(c) Rule with suitable graduations to accurately measure the material to be inspected.
(d) Weather-resistant marking materials.
(e) The Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe (RCP) Inspection Guide.
1026.2.1 Reinforced Concrete Culvert Storm Drain and Sewer Pipe
Pipe manufactured according to Sec 1026 shall be of five classes identified as Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV and Class V. The corresponding design requirements are specified in Tables 1 through 5 of AASHTO M 170. Two separate and alternate basis of acceptance of concrete pipe are allowed by the specifications. Method No. 1 requires a three-edge bearing test, approval of materials incorporated into the pipe, absorption tests and visual examination of the finished pipe. Method No. 2 requires approval of materials incorporated into the pipe, compressive tests on cores or cylinders, absorption tests and inspection of the finished pipe including quantity and placement of reinforcement. These two alternate methods are the means of inspection for acceptance; however, all pipe shall be in accordance with Sec 1026. For instance, concrete cylinders may be made and tested to verify concrete design compressive strength even though Method No. 1 is being used as a basis for acceptance.
|Metal and Concrete Pipe|
|See also: Research Publications|
Prior to acceptance of reinforced concrete culvert pipe, the manufacturer shall have furnished Construction and Materials a statement certifying that the quality control procedures at the plant meet the requirements of the American Concrete Pipe Association (ACPA) or National Precast Concrete Association (NPCA) Compliance Audit and Certification Program or an alternate quality control program approved by Construction and Materials, a list of material used in fabrication, and a statement guaranteeing that all material used in fabrication will be in accordance with the applicable specification.
A list of those manufacturers who have filed acceptable documents is shown in Qualified Fabricators of Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe.
If the manufacturer is found falsifying documentation, Construction and Materials is to be notified immediately for removal of that manufacturer or plant from the approved list.
1026.2.2.1 Fine and Coarse Aggregate
Fine and coarse aggregate shall be in accordance with Sec 1005, except that requirements for gradation and percent passing the No. 200 (75 μm) sieve shall not apply.
Fine aggregate and coarse aggregate are defined as:
(a) Fine Aggregate - aggregate passing the 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) sieve and almost entirely passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve and predominantly retained on the No. 200 (75 μm) sieve or as that portion of an aggregate passing the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve and retained on the No. 200 (75 μm) sieve, and;
(b) Coarse Aggregate - aggregate predominantly retained on the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve or as that portion of an aggregate retained on the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve.
Fine and coarse aggregate are to be from approved sources of the type of material specified in Sec 1005 and shall meet the quality requirements of that specification, except that gradation requirements and percent passing the No. 200 (75 μm) sieve do not apply. The procedures for inspecting these aggregates are described in EPG 1001 General Requirements for Material and EPG 1005 Aggregate for Concrete. The aggregates may be inspected and reported at the source of manufacture or at the pipe manufacturing plant.
Cement shall be in accordance with Sec 1019. Approved Class C or F fly ash may be used to replace a maximum of 25 percent of Type I or II cement on an equivalent weight (mass) basis. The district Construction and Materials Engineer is to establish files to reflect that cementitious materials used in the manufacture of concrete pipe for MoDOT projects were properly inspected.
The pipe manufacturer is required to maintain a file of bills of lading or delivery receipts of cementitious materials, showing the certification statements required, which are to be readily available to the inspector. Samples of cementitious materials shall be taken as shown below. If a pipe manufacturer is using more than one brand of cement or flyash, the samples should be taken alternately to cover different brands. Samples shall be placed in a canvas bag containing a plastic liner and shipped to the Central Laboratory. The sample is to be assigned a sample ID number and the associated sample record shall include the silo, truck or car number, manufacturer, and other pertinent information. The sample shall be submitted as "General".
1026.2.2.3 Cement Mixture
The concrete mixture is to be homogeneous throughout production. The pipe manufacturer is responsible for the mix design and proportioning with the restriction that a minimum of 470 pounds per cubic yard (280 kg/m3) of cementitious material is required. Admixtures may only be used with written approval of Construction and Materials. Admixtures not typically acceptable under the Standard Specifications may be used if approved. Approval of non-specification compliant admixtures requires the pipe manufacturer to obtain and hold a letter from the admixture supplier stating the admixture will not cause any negative affects when combined the other specific components and processes used by the pipe manufacturer. The inspector should be acquainted with production facilities and procedures. The inspector should verify that the concrete mix does contain not less than 470 pounds per cubic yard (280 kg/m3).
1026.2.2.4 Steel Reinforcement
Reinforcing steel for use in the manufacture of concrete pipe shall be in accordance with Sec 1036 and will be accepted according to EPG 106.1 Source of Supply and Quality Requirements. The pipe manufacturer shall use only PAL material. The material shall be reported by the pipe manufacturer using the PAL receiver form, GS-13 Form 2. The pipe manufacturer shall retain certification and mill test reports for 1 year and make them available to the inspector when requested.
Note that reinforcement of pipe wall may be either that specified under Circular Reinforcement or as under Elliptical Reinforcement. If the latter, special pipe marking is also required by Sec 1026.3.10.2.
1026.2.3 Identification Marking
The inside of each pipe section is to be clearly and permanently marked by the manufacturer, in accordance with AASHTO M 170, with the pipe class and specification designation, the date of manufacture, the name or trademark of the manufacturer, the identification of the plant, and the “Q Cast” stamp to certify that the pipe was produced at an ACPA certified plant or the identification of an alternate approved quality program.
One end of each section of pipe with elliptical reinforcement shall be clearly marked, during the process of manufacturing or immediately thereafter, on the inside and the outside of opposite wall along the minor axis of the elliptical reinforcement with the word “Top” or “Bottom” to designate the proper position when laid.
1026.2.4 Random Sampling
1026.2.4.1 Cement Samples
A sample weighing a minimum of 5 pounds (2 kg) shall be taken for approximately every 750 tons (680 Mg) of cement used for MoDOT projects or for every 30 production days on which pipe was produced for MoDOT projects, whichever occurs first.
1026.2.4.2 Fly Ash Samples
A sample weighing a minimum of 5 pounds (2 kg) shall be taken for approximately 200 tons (180 Mg) of fly ash used for MoDOT projects or for every 30 production days on which pipe was produced for MoDOT projects, whichever occurs first.
1026.2.4.3 Reinforcing Steel
When samples are obtained for testing, they shall be taken as described in EPG 1036 Reinforcing Steel for Concrete, except for Welded Wire Fabric. Welded wire to be sampled for Laboratory testing is to be field measured for size prior to sampling. Each circumferential wire across the width of the fabric is to be measured. The manufacturer may use over-sized wire in the fabrication of welded wire fabric, but not under-sized wire. The size differential shall not exceed one "W" size increment on sizes W8 and smaller and two "W" size increments on sizes larger than W8. "W" sizes referred to are those shown in AASHTO M32. In all cases where over-sizing exists, the fabric shall be identified and used as that originally ordered or offered for use. If the wire does not meet the specification requirements, it is not to be sampled and submitted to the Laboratory. It is to be rejected in the field unless measurements are such that Laboratory verification is needed. When verification is needed, it should be so stated on the identification sheet accompanying the sample. Samples of welded wire fabric representing each lot shall consist of two pieces of longitudinal wire not less than 24 in. (600 mm) in length. Samples of the transverse wires are not required. A lot of welded wire fabric is 25,000 sq. ft. (2300 sq.meter) or fraction thereof of one style of fabric with the same size wires and spacing. Regardless of the basis of acceptance of reinforcing steel for concrete pipe, it shall be field inspected for diameter and spacing of circumferential steel. The inspector is to examine laps and welds and, when required by Sec 1026, a representative sample shall be taken for testing of welded laps or butt welds. Such a sample shall consist of two pieces, each with a clear length of 12 in. (300 mm) either side of the weld and is to be taken at least once a year for each size of steel welded and each length of lap being used.
1026.2.5 Field Inspection and Testing for Acceptance
Field inspection shall be completed using the Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe (RCP) Inspection Guide.
Frequency of inspection shall be at the discretion of the engineer, but shall be performed at least every time a sample is obtained for laboratory testing.
The manufacturer shall specify in their application for placement on the qualified list to which standards their pipe is fabricated; English or metric. The standard fabrication units will be designated on the qualified list, EPG 106.1 Source of Supply and Quality Requirements, for each manufacturer. All measurements shall be made using the applicable units when determining compliance with specification.
Each length of concrete pipe is to be identified on the inside by the manufacturer by indenting on the pipe section or painting with waterproof paint the information required in EPG 1026.2.3 Identification Marking. Concrete pipe is to be inspected and reported as the class to which it was manufactured. The manufacturer shall be responsible for all markings.
Concrete pipe that has been rejected at the origin shall be marked on the outside vertical face of the bell with a single vertical mark and with a small, filled circle of orange paint on the inside of the barrel, in the bell end, near the class marking when possible. The pipe is subject to inspection and rejection at destination for any damage that may have occurred in handling. Pipe that is rejected at destination shall be marked in the same manner as pipe rejected at the origin. The inspector may choose to mark inspected pipe to prevent inspection of the same pipe more than once. The “MoDOT – OK” stamp may be used to mark inspected pipe but will not signify accepted pipe. Concrete pipe that has been tested only to the formation of the 0.01 in. (250 μm) crack requirement and is accepted for use shall be identified as such by stenciling or marking inside the bell end of the barrel, "Pipe Tested".
When gasketed concrete pipe is specified, the joints shall be Type A rubber gaskets conforming to the requirements of AASHTO M 198. The pipe shall be inspected as described in this article and in addition, the manufacturer shall make tests (in the presence of the inspector) in accordance with Sec 8 of AASHTO M 198 to demonstrate adequate performance. The manufacturer shall furnish a certification in triplicate that the physical and chemical properties of the gasket conform to all of the requirements of the specifications.
A visual examination of each length of pipe offered for inspection is to be made for workmanship. Individual sections of pipe may be rejected for:
(a) Fractures or cracks passing through the wall except for a single crack in the bell or spigot which does not extend into the barrel of the pipe.
(b) Defects that indicate imperfect proportioning, mixing, or molding. These defects may appear as non-uniform appearance such as concentrations of coarse aggregate or mortar and may be detected inside or outside the barrel. They may also appear as nonuniformity in lines or shape.
(c) Surface defects indicating honeycomb or open texture. This defect may appear inside or outside the barrel or in the bell or spigot. If surface defects are a common fault at a plant, it may be advantageous to require the pipe to be placed so the entire outside barrel can be inspected.
(d) Damages or unsatisfactory manufactured ends if such would prevent making a satisfactory joint. A small amount of surface exposure of steel may not be detrimental so long as the bell or spigot still has a smooth surface. Some honeycomb or open texture in the bell or spigot may be repairable. Chips from the bell or spigot of approximately 1/3 the depth of the joint may be tolerable, depending on extent of area affected.
If pipe is rejected for not being in accordance with specifications and the requirements set forth in the Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe (RCP) Inspection Guide, a letter documenting the failure shall be provided to the manufacturer, with a copy to Construction and Materials. The inspection guide used to inspect the rejected pipe shall be included with the letter to the manufacturer and Construction and Materials. The letter should include the location of the plant at which the failure occurred.
Visual examination of concrete pipe requires a great amount of judgment and care from the inspector. The inspector should attempt to apply the same degree of severity to a defect from day to day. If visual examination shows that proper care is not being taken in either the manufacture or handling of pipe, the manufacturer should be consulted as to possible permanent remedies of such faults.
The specified number of pipes required for tests shall be furnished without charge by the manufacturer, selected at random by the engineer, and shall be pipe that would not otherwise be rejected under the specifications. The selection will be made at the point or points designated by the engineer.
1026.2.5.1 Three-Edge Bearing Test
If a three-edge bearing test is used as the basis for acceptance, the frequency of testing shall be as described herein.
|Pipe Size||Frequency of Test to 0.01 in. Crack||Frequency of Test to Ultimate Load|
|Smaller than 66 in.||1 per 3000 ft., minimum of 1 per calendar year (each size and class)||Discretion of the engineer, minimum of 1 per calendar year (each size)|
|66 in. or Larger||1 per 1000 ft. (all sizes and classes combined)||Discretion of the engineer, minimum of 1 per calendar year (all sizes and classes combined)|
Testing will not be required at plants where pipe of these diameters is not manufactured for MoDOT, nor will pipe of these diameters be required to be manufactured solely for the purpose of testing. A MoDOT inspector should be present for the three-edge bearing test whenever possible. As a rule, pipe with the most recent production date of those with a “Q Cast” stamp should be tested in three-edge bearing. This serves two purposes, verifying that the pipe meets three-edge bearing requirements and verifying that the newest pipe is suitable for shipment at the age tested. In case a pipe fails to meet the 0.01 in. (250 μm) crack requirement; or ultimate load, if being tested to ultimate; two additional lengths may be tested from the same lot and the same production date. Both of these pipes shall pass or all pipe offered for inspection of that size and class is to be rejected, except the producer is to be given the option of testing two lengths of pipe with production dates older than those originally tested. If a production date is found to be satisfactory, pipe of that date or older may be accepted. When the three-edge bearing test is run to ultimate, the steel size and placement is to be checked in the broken barrel. Failures of three-edge bearing are cause to check fabricating procedures and compressive strength of the concrete mix.
1026.2.5.2 Compressive Strength Test
When compressive strength of concrete is used as the basis of acceptance, the compressive strength is to be determined at a frequency not less than for three-edge bearing and may be determined either by standard rodded concrete cylinders or cylinders compacted and cured in like manner as the pipe in accordance with AASHTO T 23, or on cores drilled from the wall of the pipe in accordance with AASHTO T 280.
Testing for compressive strength and the application of test results is described in the Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe (RCP) Inspection Guide. Occasional individual cylinders may fall below the design strength for some unknown reason. If the inspector feels an occasional individual cylinder of a paired set or a group of breaks is not representative of the process, it may be disregarded. However, not more than 10 percent of the cylinders tested shall fall below the design strength. In no case shall the strength of any cylinder tested fall below 80 percent of the design strength. Compressive tests may be performed in the field unless questionable results are being obtained in which case cylinders or cores are to be submitted to the Laboratory. AASHTOWARE (AWP) shall be used to identify cylinders and cores, to be submitted to the Laboratory. The inspector is to change the distribution and title block shown on the form, as required. Cores or cylinders submitted to the Central Laboratory shall be identified according to EPG 126.96.36.199.1 Identification . The exterior of the shipping carton shall have the following information listed: sample identification number, date of pour, cement factor (may be theoretical), cylinder numbers and any special instructions.
1026.2.5.3 Absorption Test
Absorption testing for Quality Assurance purposes will be run once per year on each mix used in the production of pipe. A new mix is assumed for any mix design changed including aggregate source changes. Absorption samples may be a core cut from the full wall thickness or a specimen (recommended 5 in. x 5 in. (125 x 125 mm)) extracted from the broken wall of pipe tested to ultimate in three-edge bearing. In either case, the specimen shall be of a size to yield a minimum area of 9 sq. in. (5800 mm2) representing full wall thickness and free of cracks. Samples for absorption tests are to be submitted to the Laboratory. Samples submitted to the Central Laboratory shall be identified according to EPG 188.8.131.52.1 Identification . Required supplemental information includes class, type and wall thickness.
The diameter, wall thickness, compressive strength of the concrete and the quantity of circumferential reinforcement shall be as prescribed in Tables 1 through 5 of AASHTO M 170 for pipe classes I to V.
Refer to Sec 1026.6 for Special or Modified Designs.
1026.2.6.2 Placing Reinforcement
1026.2.6.2.1 Circumferential Reinforcement
Where one line of circular reinforcement is used, the reinforcement shall be placed from 35 to 50 percent of the wall thickness from the inner surface of the pipe except that for wall thicknesses less than 2 1/2 in. (63 mm), the protective cover of the concrete over the circumferential reinforcement in the wall of the pipe shall be 3/4 in. (19 mm). In circular pipe having tow lines of circular reinforcement, each line shall be so placed that the protective covering of concrete over the circumferential reinforcement in the wall of the pipe shall be one inch (25 mm). In circular pipe having elliptical reinforcement with wall thickness 2 1/2 in. (63 mm) or over, the reinforcement in the wall of the pipe shall be so placed that the protective covering of the concrete over the circumferential reinforcement along the vertical diameter of the pipe shall be one inch (25 mm) from the inside surface of the pipe and the protective covering of the concrete over the circumferential reinforcement along the horizontal diameter of the pipe shall be one inch (25 mm) from the outside surface of the pipe. In all pipe 36 in. (900 mm) or more in diameter, the bell or the spigot of the joint shall contain circumferential reinforcement. For double cage pipe, reinforcement shall be at least equal in area to that of the outside cage or line for bells or the inside cage or line for spigots. For single cage pipe, reinforcement shall be at least equal in area to that of the cage for either the bell or spigot. The location of the reinforcement shall be subject, to the permissible variations in dimensions given in EPG 1026.2.6.4.2 Position of the Reinforcement.
A line of circumferential reinforcement of any given total area may be composed of two layers for pipe with wall thickness of less than 7 in. (180 mm) or three layers for pipe with wall thicknesses of 7 in. (180 mm) or greater. The layers shall not be separated by more than the thickness of one longitudinal member plus 1/4 in. (6 mm). The multiple layers shall be tied together to form a single rigid cage. All other specification requirements such as laps, welds, and tolerances of placement in the wall of the pipe shall apply to this method of fabricating a line of reinforcement.
1026.2.6.2.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement
Each line of circumferential reinforcement shall be assembled into a cage that shall contain sufficient longitudinal bars or members, extending through the wall of the pipe, to maintain the reinforcement rigidly in shape and in correct position within the form. The exposure of the ends of longitudinal members, stirrups, or spacers that have been used to position the cages during the placement of the concrete shall not be cause for rejection.
1026.2.6.2.3 Laps, Welds and Spacing
If the splices are not welded, the reinforcement shall be lapped not less than 20 diameters for deformed cold worked wire and 40 diameters for plain bars and cold drawn wire. In addition, where lapped cages of welded wire fabric are used without welding, the lap shall contain a longitudinal wire. If splices are welded and are not lapped to the minimum requirements above, pull tests of representative specimens shall develop at least 50 percent of the minimum specified strength of the steel and there shall be a minimum lap of 2 in. (50 mm). For butt-welded splices in bars or wire, pull tests of representative specimens shall develop at least 75 percent of the minimum specified strength of the steel. The spacing center to center of adjacent rings of circumferential reinforcement in a cage shall not exceed 4 in. (100 mm) for pipe up and including pipe having a 4 in. (100 mm) wall thickness nor exceed the wall thickness for larger pipe and shall in no case exceed 6 in. (150 mm). The continuity of the circumferential reinforcing steel shall not be destroyed during the manufacture of the pipe.
1026.2.6.3.1 Placement of Concrete
The transporting and placing of concrete shall be by methods that will prevent the segregation of the concrete material and the displacement of the reinforcement steel from its proper position in the form.
Pipe shall be cured by any one of the following methods or by any other method or combination of methods approved by the engineer that will give satisfactory results. The pipe shall be cured for sufficient length of time so that the concrete will develop the specified compressive strength at 28 days or less.
Steam Curing. Pipe may be placed in a curing chamber, free from outside drafts and cured in a moist atmosphere maintained by the injection of steam for such time and at such temperature as may be needed to enable the pipe to meet the strength requirements. The curing chamber shall be so constructed as to allow full circulation of steam around the entire pipe.
Water Curing. Concrete pipe may be water cured by covering with water-saturated material or by a system of perforated pipes, mechanical sprinklers, porous hose, or by any other approved method that will keep the pipe moist during the specified curing period.
The manufacturer has the option to combine the methods described in EPG 1026.2.6.3.2.1 Steam Curing and EPG 1026.2.6.3.2.2, Water Curing as long as the required concrete compressive strength is attained.
Curing Membrane. A curing membrane in accordance with Sec 1055 may be applied , and if used, shall be left intact until the strength requirements are met.
1026.2.6.4 Permissible Variations
Permissible variations in internal diameter are shown in Table 1026.5.1 Diameter Dimensional Tolerances (English) or Table 1026.5.2 Diameter Dimensional Tolerances (Metric). The wall thickness shall not be less than that shown in the design by more than 5 percent or 3/16 in. (5 mm), whichever is greater. A wall thickness more than that required in the design shall not be a cause for rejection. Pipe having localized variations in wall thickness exceeding those specified above will be accepted if the three edge bearing strength and minimum steel cover requirements are met.
1026.2.6.4.2 Position of the Reinforcement
The maximum variation in the position of the reinforcement shall be 10 percent of the wall thickness or 1/2 in. (13 mm), whichever is greater. Pipe having variations in the position of the reinforcement exceeding those specified above will be accepted if the three edge bearing strength requirements obtained on a representative specimen are met. In no case, however, shall the cover over the reinforcement be less than 1/2 in. (13 mm). These tolerances or cover requirements do not apply to mating surfaces of the joint. The maximum coverage from the end of the reinforcing to the end of the barrel shall be 3 in. (76 mm) total for both ends.
1026.2.6.4.3 Area of Reinforcement
Reinforcement will be considered as meeting the design requirements if the area, computed on the basis of nominal area of the wire or bars used, equal or exceeds the requirements of EPG 1026.2.6.1 Design or EPG 1026.3 Special or Modified Designs. The actual area of the reinforcement used may vary from the nominal area according to permissible variations of the specifications for the reinforcement. If inner cage and outer cage reinforcement is used, the inner cage design area may vary to the lower limit of 85 percent of the elliptical design area provided that the total area of the inner cage plus the outer cage shall not vary beyond the lower limit of 140 percent of the elliptical design area.
1026.2.6.4.4 Laying Length
Variations in the laying length of two opposite sides of pipe shall be not more than 1/4 in. for all sizes through 24 in. (600 mm) internal diameter and not more than 1/8 in. per foot (10 mm/m) of internal diameter for all sizes larger with a maximum of 5/8 in. (15 mm) in any length of pipe through 84 in. (2100 mm) internal diameter and a maximum of 3/4 in. (19 mm) for 90 in. (2250 mm) diameter or larger, except where beveled end pipe for laying on curves is specified. A summary of these variations can be seen in Table 1026.5.3 Permissible Variations in Laying Length of Two Opposite Sides of Pipe (English) or Table 1026.5.3 Permissible Variations in Laying Length of Two Opposite Sides of Pipe (Metric).
The under-run in length of a section of pipe shall be not more than 1/8 in. per foot (10 mm/m) with a maximum of 1/2 in. (13 mm) in any length of pipe.
Pipe shall be substantially free of fractures, large or deep cracks, and surface roughness. The ends of the pipe shall be normal to the walls and centerline of the pipe, within the limits of variations give in EPG 1026.2.6.4.4 Laying Length.
Pipe may be repaired, if necessary, because use of occasional imperfections in manufacture or accidental injury during handling and will be acceptable if, in the judgment of the engineer, the repairs are sound and properly finished and cured and the repaired pipe conforms to the requirements of these specifications.
1026.3 Special or Modified Designs
As permitted by Sec 1026.3.6, a manufacturer may submit a special or modified design for approval.
Designs are to be submitted by the manufacturer to the district that is responsible for the original inspection. The district will confirm designs have been signed and sealed by a Missouri registered professional engineer and that parameters indicated are appropriate for the application. Designs not signed and sealed are to be rejected.
Designs, shop drawings and installation details required by the specifications and AASHTO M 242 must be reviewed by the Bridge Division for compliance with appropriate design standards prior to fabrication.
Designs shall be by either the direct design method or the indirect design method in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications section 12.10. Regardless of which method is used the manufacturer is required to calculate the D-loads and include the computations in submitted designs.
Designs based on the direct method will be accepted if in accordance with the design specifications. Designs based on the indirect method will be accepted if the pipe meets the required minimum design strength D-load, in accordance with AASHTO M 242, section 9.
Designs have previously been accepted on the basis of three-edge bearing, compressive strength, and absorption tests, which will no longer be the case because these tests only apply to the acceptance of the pipe not the acceptance of the design.
The acceptance of pipe designed by the direct method shall be in accordance with AASHTO M 242, section 4.1.1. The pipe need only be tested for the formation of the 0.01 in. crack. The acceptance of pipe designed by the indirect method shall be in accordance with AASHTO M 242, section 4.1.2.
The manufacturer shall retain all applicable AASHTO specifications for use by the inspector.
Summary of Acceptance Requirements
|Direct Design Method||Indirect Design Method|
|Element of Acceptance||Basis of Acceptance||Providing Acceptance||Element of Acceptance||Basis of Acceptance||Providing Acceptance|
(LRFD Sec 12.10) or
(LFD Sec 16.4)
|Bridge Division||Design||Full Scale Testing
(M 242 Sec 9)
|Pipe||Full Scale Testing
(M 242 Sec 4.1.1) *
|Materials Division||Pipe||Compression Testing
(M 242 Sec 4.1.2) *
|* All other acceptance requirements referenced in this section shall be satisfied.|
1026.4 Report (Records)
The manufacturer is required to notify MoDOT of impending shipments by contacting Materials in the district responsible for their plant and providing the information required by the Pipe Shipping Report Form General Section 17 Form 2. Construction and Materials will be notified by shippers General Section 17 Form 1 that are out-of-state and are not routinely visited by district Materials. This information will allow MoDOT to track the material, obtain samples, and perform Quality Assurance inspection as necessary.
An AWP sample record shall be created for each size and class of pipe in each shipment.
Each AWP sample record will be created by the district responsible for the manufacturer. Construction and Materials will create records for pipe shipped by out-of-state manufacturers not routinely visited by district Materials.
Acceptance of each component of reinforced concrete pipe including fine and coarse aggregate, cement, fly ash, and steel shall be documented with an AASHTOWARE Project (AWP) in accordance with AWP MA Sample Record, General.
Results of three-edge bearing tests are to be reported on a form similar to that shown in EPG 1026.6.1 Report of Tests on Concrete Pipe . The district shall provide its own forms. Distribution of this form is to be as follows:
- Construction and Materials
- District Construction and Materials Engineer (fabricating district).
Results of field determination of compressive strength (cylinders or cores) shall be reported through AWP.
All pipe is to be inspected at the source and reported to the project through AWP. Acceptable pipe is to be reported to the project as soon as possible. Pipe quantity shall be shown in feet. End sections shall be shown as quantity each. The length of barrel of the end sections shall be included in the remarks and shall not be counted toward the materials summary unless the length contributed is necessary to eliminate a significant summary deficiency. Rejected pipe is to be reported as "General" rather than a project and the report should contain a brief statement as to the causes of rejection. When shipments of inspected pipe are made to another producing plant, all pipe shall be reported as "General" to the District involved, as soon as possible. The intermediate district shall then be responsible for the reporting to the project.
Rubber gasket joint materials will be from a PAL supplier and will be reported through AWP. They may be included on the same sample record as accepted concrete pipe. The pipe manufacturer shall report receipt of gasket material using the PAL receiver form and shall retain a copy of the certification for a period of 2 years.
Table 1026.5.1 Diameter Dimensional Tolerances (English)
|Specified Inside Diameter, Inch||Lower Tolerance, Inch||Lower Tolerance, mma||Upper Tolerance, Inch||Upper Tolerance,mma|
|12||11 13/16||300||12 3/16||310|
|15||14 13/16||375||15 4/16||387|
|18||17 12/16||450||18 5/16||464|
|21||20 11/16||525||21 5/16||541|
|24||23 10/16||600||24 6/16||619|
|27||26 10/16||676||27 6/16||695|
|30||29 10/16||752||30 6/16||772|
|33||32 10/16||829||33 6/16||848|
|36||35 10/16||905||36 6/16||924|
|42||41 10/16||1056||42 7/16||1077|
|48||47 9/16||1207||48 8/16||1231|
|54||53 8/16||1358||54 7/16||1382|
|60||59 7/16||1509||60 10/16||1539|
|66||65 6/16||1660||66 11/16||1693|
|72||71 5/16||1811||72 12/16||1847|
|78||77 4/16||1961||78 14/16||2003|
|84||83 3/16||2112||84 14/16||2155|
|90||89 2/16||2263||90 15/16||2309|
|108||106 15/16||2715||109 2/16||2771|
|114||112 14/16||2867||115 2/16||2924|
|120||118 13/16||3018||121 3/16||3078|
|126||124 12/16||3169||127 4/16||3232|
|132||130 11/16||3319||133 5/16||3386|
|138||136 10/16||3470||139 6/16||3540|
|144||142 9/16||3621||145 7/16||3694|
|a The metric dimensions have been approximately converted from their English counterparts.|
Table 1026.5.2 Diameter Dimensional Tolerances (Metric)
|Specified Inside Diameter, mm||Lower Tolerance, mm||Lower Tolerance, Incha||Upper Tolerance,mm||Upper Tolerance, Incha|
|750||740||29 2/16||760||29 15/16|
|825||815||32 2/16||835||32 14/16|
|900||890||35 1/16||910||35 14/16|
|1050||1040||40 15/16||1061||41 12/16|
|1200||1188||46 13/16||1212||47 12/16|
|1350||1337||52 10/16||1364||53 11/16|
|1500||1485||58 8/16||1515||59 11/16|
|1650||1634||64 5/16||1667||65 10/16|
|1800||1782||70 3/16||1818||71 9/16|
|2100||2079||81 14/16||2121||83 8/16|
|2250||2228||87 11/16||2273||89 8/16|
|2400||2376||93 9/16||2424||95 7/16|
|2550||2525||99 6/16||2576||101 7/16|
|2700||2673||105 4/16||2727||107 6/16|
|2850||2822||111 2/16||2879||113 6/16|
|3000||2970||116 15/16||3030||119 5/16|
|3150||3119||122 13/16||3182||125 4/16|
|3300||3267||128 10/16||3333||131 4/16|
|3400||3366||132 9/16||3434||135 3/16|
|3600||3564||140 5/16||3636||143 3/16|
|a The metric dimensions have been approximately converted from their English counterparts.|
Table 1026.5.3 Permissible Variations in Laying Length of Two Opposite Sides of Pipe (English)
|Specified Inside Diameter, inch||Variation, Inch/ft||Maximum Variation, Inch|
Table 1026.5.4 Permissible Variations in Laying Length of Two Opposite Sides of Pipe (Metric)
|Specified Inside Diameter, mm||Variation, mm/m||Maximum Variation, mm|
1026.6 Report of Tests on Concrete Pipe
1026.6.1 Example of a Report of Tests on Concrete Pipe
1026.6.2 Report of Tests on Concrete Pipe
Articles in "1026 Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe"
The following 2 pages are in this category, out of 2 total.