616.7 Type of Temporary Traffic Control Zone Activities (MUTCD 6G)
From Engineering Policy Guide
616.7.1 Typical Applications (MUTCD 6G.01)
Support. Each TTC zone is different. Many variables, such as location of work, highway type, geometrics, vertical and horizontal alignment, intersections, interchanges, road user volumes, road vehicle mix (buses, trucks, and cars), and road user speeds affect the needs of each zone. The goal of TTC in work zones is safety with minimum disruption to road users. The key factor in promoting TTC zone safety is proper judgment.
Typical applications (TAs) of TTC zones are organized according to duration, location, type of work, and highway type. Refer to Listing of Typical Applications Table. These typical applications include the use of various TTC methods, but do not include a layout for every conceivable work situation.
Well-designed TTC plans for planned special events will likely be developed from a combination of treatments from several of the typical applications.
Guidance. For any planned special event that will have an impact on the traffic on any street or highway, a TTC plan should be developed in conjunction with and be approved by the agency or agencies that have jurisdiction over the affected roadways.
Typical applications should be altered, when necessary, to fit the conditions of a particular TTC zone.
Option. Other devices may be added to supplement the devices shown in the typical applications, while others may be deleted. The sign spacings and taper lengths may be increased to provide additional time or space for driver response.
Support. Decisions regarding the selection of the most appropriate typical application to use as a guide for a specific TTC zone require an understanding of each situation. Although there are many ways of categorizing TTC zone applications, the four factors mentioned earlier (work duration, work location, work type, and highway type) are used to characterize the typical applications illustrated in EPG 616.8.
616.7.2 Work Duration (MUTCD 6G.02)
Support. Work duration is a major factor in determining the number and types of devices used in TTC zones. The duration of a TTC zone is defined relative to the length of time a work operation occupies a spot location.
Standard. The five categories of work duration and their time at a location shall be:
- A. Long-term stationary is planned work that occupies a location more than 3 days.
- B. Intermediate-term stationary is planned work that occupies a location more than one daylight period up to 3 days, or planned nighttime work lasting more than 30 minutes.
- C. Short-term stationary is planned daytime work that occupies a location for more than 30 minutes but less than 12 hours.
- D. Short duration is planned daytime or nighttime work that occupies a location up to 30 minutes.
- E. Mobile is work that moves intermittently or continuously and occupies a location up to 15 minutes in duration.
- F. Emergency operations include unplanned work occupying a location up to 15 minutes. Within MoDOT, these operations consist of the initial response to and repair/removal of safety concerns including Response Priority 1 items (refer to MoDOT's Incident Response Plan).
6220.127.116.11 Long-term Stationary
Support. At long-term stationary TTC zones, there is ample time to install and realize benefits from the full range of TTC procedures and devices that are available for use - an important consideration during nighttime hours and periods when workers are not present. Generally, post-mounted signs, larger channelizers and barricades, temporary traffic barriers, temporary pavement markings, work lighting, area lighting, warning lighting and temporary traffic signals are used in the the temporary traffic control plans.
Standard. Since long-term operations extend into nighttime, retroreflective and/or illuminated devices shall be used in long-term stationary TTC zones.
Guidance. Inappropriate markings in long-term stationary TTC zones should be removed and replaced with temporary markings.
618.104.22.168 Intermediate-term Stationary Operations
Support. In intermediate-term stationary TTC zones, it might not be feasible or practical to use procedures or devices that would be desirable for long-term stationary TTC zones, such as altered pavement markings, temporary traffic barriers, and temporary roadways. The increased time to place and remove these devices in some cases could significantly lengthen the project, thus increasing exposure time.
Standard. Since intermediate-term operations extend into nighttime, retroreflective and/or illuminated devices shall be used in intermediate-term stationary TTC zones.
622.214.171.124 Short-term Stationary
Support. Most maintenance and utility operations are short-term stationary work.
In these operations, procedures and devices are usually simplified when compared to intermediate and long-term stationary operations because workers are present to maintain and monitor the temporary traffic control zone, the zone is only set up during daylight hours and it is only in place for a relatively short period of time. Portable signs, flashing arrow panels, channelizers, fleet lighting, protective vehicles and truck-mounted attenuators are devices generally incorporated into the temporary traffic control plan for these operations.
6126.96.36.199 Short Duration
Support. As compared to stationary operations, short-duration operations are activities that might involve different treatments. Devices having greater mobility might be necessary such as signs mounted on trucks. Devices that are larger, more imposing, or more visible can be used effectively and economically. The mobility of the TTC zone is important.
Guidance. Safety in short-duration operations should not be compromised by using fewer devices simply because the operation will frequently change its location.
Option. Appropriately colored or marked vehicles with high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights may be used in place of signs and channelizing devices for short-duration operations. These vehicles may be augmented with signs or arrow boards.
Support. During short-duration work, it often takes longer to set up and remove the TTC zone than to perform the work. Workers face hazards in setting up and taking down the TTC zone. Also, since the work time is short, delays affecting road users are significantly increased when additional devices are installed and removed.
Option. Considering these factors, simplified control procedures may be warranted for short-duration work. A reduction in the number of devices may be offset by the use of other more dominant devices such as high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating or strobe lights on work vehicles.
6188.8.131.52 Mobile Operations
As compared to stationary operations, mobile operations are activities that might involve different treatments. Devices having greater mobility might be necessary such as signs mounted on trucks. Devices that are larger, more imposing, or more visible can be used effectively and economically. The mobility of the TTC zone is important.
Guidance. Safety in mobile operations should not be compromised by using fewer devices simply because the operation will frequently change its location.
Option. Appropriately colored or marked vehicles with high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights may be used in place of signs and channelizing devices for mobile operations. These vehicles may be augmented with signs or arrow boards.
Support. Mobile operations often involve frequent short stops for activities such as litter cleanup, pothole patching, or utility operations, and are similar to short-duration operations.
Guidance. Warning signs and high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights should be used on the vehicles that are participating in the mobile work.
Option. Flags and/or channelizing devices may additionally be used and moved periodically to keep them near the mobile work area.
Flaggers may be used for mobile operations that often involve frequent short stops.
Support. Mobile operations also include work activities where workers and equipment move along the road without stopping, usually at slow speeds. The advance warning area moves with the work area.
Guidance. When mobile operations are being performed, a shadow vehicle equipped with an arrow board or a sign should follow the work vehicle, especially when vehicular traffic speeds or volumes are high. Where feasible, warning signs should be placed along the roadway and moved periodically as work progresses.
Under high-volume conditions, consideration should be given to scheduling mobile operations work during off-peak hours.
If there are mobile operations on a high-speed travel lane of a multi-lane divided highway, arrow boards should be used.
Standard. Mobile operations shall have appropriate devices on the equipment (that is, high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights, signs or special lighting), or shall use a separate vehicle with appropriate warning devices.
Option. For mobile operations that move at speeds of less than 3 mph, mobile signs or stationary signing that is periodically retrieved and repositioned in the advance warning area may be used.
6184.108.40.206 Emergency Operations
Support. Emergency operations include unplanned work occupying a location up to 15 minutes. Within MoDOT, these operations consist of the initial response to and repair/removal of safety concerns including Response Priority 1 items (refer to MoDOT's Incident Response Plan).
In these operations, it is usually more advantageous, from a safety standpoint, to remove or provide warning of the risk in a timely manner with limited temporary traffic control than it is to set up a temporary traffic control zone for short duration operations. The decision to reduce the temporary traffic control shall be at the discretion of the supervisor. However, work activities shall still be performed with the safety of the motorist and worker in mind. A vehicle-mounted sign, truck-mounted flashing arrow panel and fleet lighting are devices generally incorporated into the temporary traffic control plan for these operations. A protective vehicle and truck-mounted attenuator should be considered as additional safety measures.
616.7.3 Location of Work (MUTCD 6G.03)
The choice of TTC needed for a TTC zone depends upon where the work is located. As a general rule, the closer the work is to road users (including bicyclists and pedestrians), the greater the number of TTC devices that are needed. Procedures are described later in this article for establishing TTC zones in the following locations:
- A. Outside the shoulder,
- B. On the shoulder with no encroachment,
- C. On the shoulder with minor encroachment,
- D. Within the median, and
- E. Within the traveled way.
Standard. When the work space is within the traveled way, except for short-duration and mobile operations, advance warning shall provide a general message that work is taking place and shall supply information about highway conditions. TTC devices shall indicate how vehicular traffic can move through the TTC zone.
616.7.4 Modifications To Fulfill Special Needs (MUTCD 6G.04)
Support. The typical applications in EPG 616.8 illustrate commonly encountered situations in which TTC devices are employed.
Option. Other devices may be added to supplement the devices provided in the typical applications, and device spacing may be adjusted to provide additional reaction time. When conditions are less complex than those depicted in the typical applications, fewer devices may be needed.
Guidance. When conditions are more complex, typical applications should be modified by giving particular attention to the provisions set forth in 616.2 and by incorporating appropriate devices and practices from the following list:
- A. Additional devices:
- 1. Signs
- 2. Arrow boards
- 3. More channelizing devices at closer spacing (see Section 6F.74 for information regarding detectable edging for pedestrians)
- 4. Temporary raised pavement markers
- 5. High-level warning devices
- 6. Portable changeable message signs
- 7. Temporary traffic control signals (including pedestrian signals and accessible pedestrian signals)
- 8. Temporary traffic barriers
- 9. Crash cushions
- 10. Screens
- 11. Rumble strips
- 12. More delineation
- B. Upgrading of devices:
- 1. A full complement of standard pavement markings
- 2. Brighter and/or wider pavement markings
- 3. Larger and/or brighter signs
- 4. Channelizing devices with greater conspicuity
- 5. Temporary traffic barriers in place of channelizing devices
- C. Improved geometrics at detours or crossovers
- D. Increased distances:
- 1. Longer advance warning area
- 2. Longer tapers
- E. Lighting:
- 1. Temporary roadway lighting
- 2. Steady-burn lights used with channelizing devices
- 3. Flashing lights for isolated hazards
- 4. Illuminated signs
- 5. Floodlights
- F. Pedestrian routes and temporary facilities
- G. Bicycle diversions and temporary facilities
616.7.5 Work Affecting Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities (MUTCD 6G.05)
Support. It is not uncommon, particularly in urban areas, that road work and the associated TTC will affect existing pedestrian or bicycle facilities. It is essential that the needs of all road users, including pedestrians with disabilities, are considered in TTC zones.
In addition to specific provisions identified in EPG 616.7.06 through EPG 616.7.14, there are a number of provisions that might be applicable for all of the types of activities identified in this article.
Guidance. Where pedestrian or bicycle usage is high, the typical applications should be modified by giving particular attention to the provisions set forth in EPG 616.4 and EPG 616.6.74 and EPG 616.7, and in other articles of EPG 616 related to accessibility and detectability provisions in TTC zones.
Pedestrians should be separated from the worksite by appropriate devices that maintain the accessibility and detectability for pedestrians with disabilities.
Bicyclists and pedestrians should not be exposed to unprotected excavations, open utility access, overhanging equipment or other such conditions.
Except for short duration and mobile operations, when a highway shoulder is occupied, a SHOULDER WORK (WO21-5) sign should be placed in advance of the activity area. When work is performed on a paved shoulder 8 ft. or wider, channelizing devices should be placed on a taper having a length that conforms to the requirements of a shoulder taper. Signs should be placed such that they do not narrow any existing pedestrian passages to less than 48 inches.
Pedestrian detours should be avoided since pedestrians rarely observe them and the cost of providing accessibility and detectability might outweigh the cost of maintaining a continuous route. Whenever possible, work should be done in a manner that does not create a need to detour pedestrians from existing routes or crossings.
Standard. Where pedestrian routes are closed, alternate pedestrian routes shall be provided.
When existing pedestrian facilities are disrupted, closed, or relocated in a TTC zone, the temporary facilities shall be detectable and shall include accessibility features consistent with the features present in the existing pedestrian facility.
616.7.6 Work Outside of the Shoulder (MUTCD 6G.06)
Support. When work is being performed off the roadway (beyond the shoulders, but within the right of way), little or no TTC might be needed. TTC generally is not needed where work is confined to an area 15 ft. or more from the edge of the traveled way. However, TTC is appropriate where distracting situations exist, such as vehicles parked on the shoulder, vehicles accessing the worksite via the highway, and equipment traveling on or crossing the roadway to perform the work operations (for example, mowing). For work beyond the shoulder, see Fig. 616.8.1 - MT.
Guidance. Where the situations described in the above paragraph exist, a single warning sign, such as ROAD WORK AHEAD (WO20-1), should be used. If the equipment travels on the roadway, the equipment should be equipped with appropriate flags, high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights and/or a SLOW MOVING VEHICLE (WO21-4) sign.
Option. If work vehicles are on the shoulder, a SHOULDER WORK (WO21-5) sign may be used. For mowing operations, the sign MOWING AHEAD (WO21-8) may be used.
Where the activity is spread out over a distance of more than 2 miles, the SHOULDER WORK (WO21-5) sign may be repeated every 1 mile.
A supplementary plaque with the message NEXT XX MILES (WO7-3aP) may be used.
Guidance. A general warning sign like ROAD MACHINERY AHEAD (WO21-3) should be used if workers and equipment must occasionally move onto the shoulder.
616.7.7 Work on the Shoulder with No Encroachment (MUTCD 6G.07)
Support. The provisions of EPG 616.7.7 apply to short-term through long-term stationary operations.
Standard. When paved shoulders 8 ft. or wider are closed, at least one advance warning sign shall be used. In addition, channelizing devices shall be used to close the shoulder in advance to delineate the beginning of the work space and direct motor vehicle traffic to remain within the traveled way.
Guidance. When paved shoulders 8 ft. or wider are closed on freeways and expressways, road users should be warned about potential disabled vehicles that cannot get off the traveled way. An initial general warning sign, such as ROAD WORK AHEAD (WO20-1), should be used, followed by a RIGHT or LEFT SHOULDER CLOSED (WO21-5a) sign. Where the downstream end of the shoulder closure extends beyond the distance that can be perceived by road users, a supplementary plaque bearing the message NEXT XX FEET (WO16-4P) or MILES (WO7-3aP) should be placed below the SHOULDER CLOSED (WO21-5a) sign. On multi-lane, divided highways, signs advising of shoulder work or the condition of the shoulder should be placed only on the side of the affected shoulder.
When an improved shoulder is closed on a high-speed roadway, it should be treated as a closure of a portion of the road system because road users expect to be able to use it in emergencies. Road users should be given ample advance warning that shoulders are closed for use as refuge areas throughout a specified length of the approaching TTC zone. The sign(s) should read SHOULDER CLOSED (WO21-5a) with distances indicated. The work space on the shoulder should be closed off by a taper or channelizing devices with a length of T1 using the formulas in Table 616.3.5 Recommended Taper Length and Spacing.
When the shoulder is not occupied but work has adversely affected its condition, the LOW SHOULDER (WO8-9) or SOFT SHOULDER (WO8-4) sign should be used, as appropriate.
Where the condition extends over a distance in excess of 1 mile, the sign should be repeated at 1-mile intervals.
Option. In addition, a supplementary plaque bearing the message NEXT XX MILES (WO7-3aP) may be used. Temporary traffic barriers may be needed to inhibit encroachment of errant vehicles into the work space and to protect workers.
Standard. When used for shoulder work, arrow boards shall operate only in the caution mode.
Support. A typical application for stationary work operations on shoulders is shown in Fig. 616.8.3 - MT. Short duration or mobile work on shoulders is shown in Fig. 616.8.4 - MT. Work on freeway shoulders is shown in Fig. 616.8.5 - MT.
616.7.8 Work on the Shoulder with Minor Encroachment (MUTCD 6G.8)
Guidance. When work takes up part of a lane, vehicular traffic volumes, vehicle mix (buses, trucks, cars, and bicycles), speed, and capacity should be analyzed to determine whether the affected lane should be closed. Unless the lane encroachment permits a remaining lane width of 10 ft., the lane should be closed.
Truck off-tracking should be considered when determining whether the minimum lane width of 10 ft. is adequate.
Support. Fig. 616.8.6 - MT illustrates a method for handling vehicular traffic where the stationary or short duration work space encroaches slightly into the traveled way.
616.7.9 Work Within the Median (MUTCD 6G.9)
Guidance. If work in the median of a divided highway is within 15 ft. from the edge of the traveled way for either direction of travel, TTC should be used through the use of advance warning signs and channelizing devices.
616.7.10 Work Within the Traveled Way of a Two-Lane Highway (MUTCD 6G.10)
Detour signs are used to direct road users onto another roadway. At diversions, road users are directed onto a temporary roadway or alignment placed within or adjacent to the right-of-way. Typical applications for detouring or diverting road users on two-lane highways are shown in Fig. 616.8.7 - MT, Fig. 616.8.8 - MT and Fig. 616.8.9 - MT. EPG 616.8.7 - MT illustrates the controls around an area where a section of roadway has been closed and a diversion has been constructed. Channelizing devices and pavement markings are used to indicate the transition to the temporary roadway.
Guidance. When a detour is long, Detour (MO4-8, MO4-9) signs should be installed to remind and reassure road users periodically that they are still successfully following the detour.
When an entire roadway is closed, as illustrated in EPG 616.8.8, a detour should be provided and road users should be warned in advance of the closure, which in this example is a closure 10 miles from the intersection. If local road users are allowed to use the roadway up to the closure, the ROAD CLOSED AHEAD, LOCAL TRAFFIC ONLY (R11-3a) or ROAD CLOSED TO THRU TRAFFIC (R11-4)signs should be used. The portion of the road open to local road users should have adequate signing, marking, and delineation.
Detours should be signed so that road users will be able to traverse the entire detour route and back to the original roadway as shown in EPG 616.8.9.
Support. Techniques for controlling vehicular traffic under one-lane, two-way conditions are described in EPG 616.3.10.
Option. Flaggers may be used as shown in Fig. 616.8.10 - MT.
STOP/YIELD sign control may be used on roads with low traffic volumes as shown in Fig. 616.8.11 - MT.
A temporary traffic control signal may be used as shown in Fig. 616.8.12 - MT.
616.7.11 Work Within the Traveled Way of an Urban Street (MUTCD 6G.11)
In urban TTC zones, decisions are needed on how to control vehicular traffic, such as how many lanes are required, whether any turns need to be prohibited at intersections, and how to maintain access to business, industrial and residential areas.
Pedestrian traffic needs separate attention. 616.4 contains information regarding pedestrian movements near TTC zones.
Standard. If the TTC zone affects the movement of bicyclists, adequate access to the roadway or shared-use paths shall be provided EPG 641 Bicycle Facilities.
Where transit stops are affected or relocated because of work activity, both pedestrian and vehicular access to the affected or relocated transit stops shall be provided.
Guidance. If a designated bicycle route is closed because of the work being done, a signed alternate route should be provided. Bicyclists should not be directed onto the path used by pedestrians.
Worksites within the intersection should be protected against inadvertent pedestrian incursion by providing detectable channelizing devices.
Support. Utility work takes place both within and outside the roadway to construct and maintain services such as power, gas, light, water or telecommunications. Operations often involve intersections, since that is where many of the network junctions occur. The work force is usually small, only a few vehicles are involved, and the number and types of TTC devices placed in the TTC zone is usually minimal.
Standard. All TTC devices shall be retroreflective or illuminated if utility work is performed during nighttime hours.
Guidance. As discussed under short-duration projects, however, the reduced number of devices in utility work zones should be offset by the use of high-visibility devices, such as high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating or strobe lights on work vehicles or high-level warning devices.
Support. Fig. 616.8.6 - MT, Fig. 616.8.10 - MT, Fig. 616.8.15 - MT, Fig. 616.8.18 - MT, Fig. 616.8.21 - MT, Fig. 616.8.22 - MT, Fig. 616.8.23 - MT, Fig. 616.8.26 - MT and Fig. 616.8.33 - MT are examples of typical applications for utility operations. Other typical applications might apply as well.
616.7.12 Work Within the Traveled Way of a Multi-Lane, Non-Access Controlled Highway (MUTCD 6G.12)
Work on multi-lane (two or more lanes of moving motor vehicle traffic in one direction) highways is divided into right-lane closures, left-lane closures, interior-lane closures, multiple-lane closures and closures on five-lane roadways.
Standard. When a lane is closed on a multi-lane road for other than a mobile operation, a transition area containing a merging taper shall be used.
Guidance. When justified by an engineering study, temporary traffic barriers (see EPG 616.6.70) should be used to prevent incursions of errant vehicles into hazardous areas or work space.
Support. Fig. 616.8.34 - MT illustrates a lane closure in which temporary traffic barriers are used.
Option. When the right lane is closed, TTC similar to that shown in Fig. 616.8.33 - MT may be used for undivided or divided four-lane roads.
Guidance. If morning and evening peak hour vehicular traffic volumes in the two directions are uneven and the greater volume is on the side where the work is being done in the right-hand lane, consideration should be given to closing the inside lane for opposing vehicular traffic and making the lane available to the side with heavier vehicular traffic, as shown in Fig. 616.8.31 - MT.
If the larger vehicular traffic volume changes to the opposite direction at a different time of the day, the TTC should be changed to allow two lanes for opposing vehicular traffic by moving the devices from the opposing lane to the center line. When it is necessary to create a temporary center line that is not consistent with the pavement markings, channelizing devices should be used and closely spaced.
Option. When closing a left lane on a multi-lane undivided road, as vehicular traffic flow permits, the two interior lanes may be closed, as shown in Fig. 616.8.30 - MT, to provide drivers and workers additional lateral clearance and to provide access to the work space.
Standard. When only the left lane is closed on undivided roads, channelizing devices shall be placed along the center line as well as along the adjacent lane.
Guidance. When an interior lane is closed, an adjacent lane should also be considered for closure to provide additional space for vehicles and materials and to facilitate the movement of equipment within the work space. When multiple lanes in one direction are closed, a capacity analysis should be made to determine the number of lanes needed to accommodate motor vehicle traffic needs. Vehicular traffic should be moved over one lane at a time. As shown in Fig. 616.8.37 - MT, the tapers should be separated by a distance of 2(T2), with T2 being determined by the Table 616.3.5 Recommended Taper Length and Spacing.
Option. If operating speeds are 40 mph or less and the space approaching the work area does not permit moving traffic over one lane at a time, a single continuous taper may be used.
Standard. When a directional roadway is closed, inapplicable WRONG WAY signs and markings, and other existing traffic control devices at intersections within the temporary two-lane, two-way operations section shall be covered, removed or obliterated.
Option. When half the road is closed on an undivided highway, both directions of vehicular traffic may be accommodated as shown in Fig. 616.8.32 - MT. When both interior lanes are closed, temporary traffic controls may be used as provided in Fig. 616.8.30 - MT. When a roadway must be closed on a divided highway, a median crossover may be used (see EPG 616.7.16).
Support. TTC for lane closures on five-lane roads is similar to other multi-lane undivided roads. Fig. 616.8.32 - MT can be adapted for use on five-lane roads. Fig. 616.8.35 - MT can be used on a five-lane road for short duration and mobile operations.
616.7.13 Work Within the Traveled Way at an Intersection (MUTCD 6G.13)
The typical applications for intersections are classified according to the location of the work space with respect to the intersection area (as defined by the extension of the curb or edge lines). The three classifications are near side, far side, and in-the-intersection. Work spaces often extend into more than one portion of the intersection. For example, work in one quadrant often creates a near-side work space on one street and a far-side work space on the cross street. In such instances, an appropriate TTC plan is obtained by combining features shown in two or more of the intersection and pedestrian typical applications.
TTC zones in the vicinity of intersections might block movements and interfere with normal road user flows. Such conflicts frequently occur at more complex signalized intersections having such features as traffic signal heads over particular lanes, lanes allocated to specific movements, multiple signal phases, signal detectors for actuated control, and accessible pedestrian signals and detectors.
Guidance. The effect of the work upon signal operation should be considered, and temporary corrective actions should be taken, if necessary, such as revising signal phasing and/or timing to provide adequate capacity, maintaining or adjusting signal detectors, and relocating signal heads to provide adequate visibility as described in EPG 902 Signals.
Standard. When work will occur near an intersection where operational, capacity, or pedestrian accessibility problems are anticipated, the highway agency having jurisdiction shall be contacted.
Guidance. For work at an intersection, advance warning signs, devices, and markings should be used on all cross streets, as appropriate. The typical applications depict urban intersections on arterial streets.
Pedestrian crossings near TTC sites should be separated from the worksite by appropriate barriers that maintain the accessibility and detectability for pedestrians with disabilities.
Support. Near-side work spaces, as depicted in Fig. 616.8.21 - MT, are simply handled as a midblock lane closure. A problem that might occur with near-side lane closure is a reduction in capacity, which during certain hours of operation could result in congestion and backups.
Option. When near-side work spaces are used, an exclusive turn lane may be used for through vehicular traffic. Where space is restricted in advance of near-side work spaces, as with short block spacings, two warning signs may be used in the advance warning area, and a third action-type warning or a regulatory sign (such as Keep Left) may be placed within the transition area.
Support. Far-side work spaces, as depicted in Figs. 616.8.22 - MT through 616.8.25 - MT, involve additional treatment because road users typically enter the activity area by straight-through and left- or right-turning movements.
Guidance. When a lane through an intersection must be closed on the far side, it should also be closed on the near-side approach to preclude merging movements within the intersection.
Option. If there are a significant number of vehicles turning from a near-side lane that is closed on the far side, the near-side lane may be converted to an exclusive turn lane.
Support. Figs. 616.8.26 - MT and 616.8.27 - MT provide guidance on applicable procedures for work performed within the intersection.
Option. If the work is within the intersection, any of the following strategies may be used:
- A. A small work space so that road users can move around it, as shown in Fig. 616.8.26 - MT;
- B. Flaggers or uniformed law enforcement officers to direct road users, as shown in Fig. 616.8.27 - MT;
- C. Work in stages so the work space is kept to a minimum; and
- D. Road closures or upstream diversions to reduce road user volumes.
Guidance. Depending on road user conditions, a flagger(s) and/or a uniformed law enforcement officer(s) should be used to control road users.
616.7.14 Work Within the Traveled Way of a Freeway or Expressway (MUTCD 6G.14)
Support. Problems of TTC might occur under the special conditions encountered where vehicular traffic must be moved through or around TTC zones on high-speed, high-volume roadways. Although the general principles outlined in EPG 616 are applicable to all types of highways, high-speed, access-controlled highways need special attention in order to accommodate vehicular traffic while also protecting road users and workers. The road user volumes, road vehicle mix (buses, trucks, cars and bicycles, if permitted), and speed of vehicles on these facilities require that careful TTC procedures be implemented, for example, to induce critical merging maneuvers well in advance of work spaces and in a manner that creates minimum turbulence and delay in the vehicular traffic stream. These situations often require more conspicuous devices than specified for normal rural highway or urban street use. However, the same important basic considerations of uniformity and standardization of general principles apply for all roadways.
Work under high-speed, high-volume vehicular traffic on a controlled access highway is complicated by the roadway design and operational features. The presence of a median that establishes separate roadways for directional vehicular traffic flow might prohibit the closing of one of the roadways or the diverting of vehicular traffic to the other roadway. Lack of access to and from adjacent roadways prohibits rerouting of vehicular traffic away from the work space in many cases. Other conditions exist where work must be limited to night hours, thereby necessitating increased use of warning lights, illumination of work spaces, and advance warning systems.
TTC for a typical lane closure on a divided highway is shown in Fig. 616.8.33 - MT. Temporary traffic controls for short duration and mobile operations on freeways are shown in Fig. 616.8.35 -MT. A typical application for shifting vehicular traffic lanes around a work space is shown in Fig. 616.8.36 - MT. TTC for multiple and interior lane closures on a freeway is shown in Figs. 616.8.37 - MT and 616.8.38 - MT.
Guidance. The method for closing an interior lane when the open lanes have the capacity to carry vehicular traffic should be as shown in Fig. 616.8.37 - MT. When the capacity of the other lanes is needed, the method shown in Fig. 616.8.38 - MT should be used.
616.7.15 Two-Lane, Two-Way Traffic on One Roadway of a Normally Divided Highway (MUTCD 6G.15)
Support. Two-lane, two-way operation on one roadway of a normally divided highway is a typical procedure that requires special consideration in the planning, design, and work phases, because unique operational problems (for example, increasing the risk of head-on crashes) can arise with the two-lane, two-way operation.
Standard. When two-lane, two-way traffic control must be maintained on one roadway of a normally divided highway, opposing vehicular traffic shall be separated with either temporary traffic barriers (concrete safety-shape or approved alternate), or channelizing devices throughout the length of the two-way operation. The use of markings and complementary signing, by themselves, shall not be used.
Support. Fig. 616.8.39 - MT shows the procedure for two-lane, two-way operation. Treatments for entrance and exit ramps within the two-way roadway segment of this type of work are shown in Figs. 616.8.40 - MT and 616.8.41 - MT.
616.7.16 Crossovers (MUTCD 6G.16)
Guidance. The following are considered good guiding principles for the design of crossovers:
- A. Tapers for lane drops should be separated from the crossovers, as shown in Fig. 616.8.39 - MT.
- B. Crossovers should be designed for speeds according to EPG 616.12 Work Zone Speed Limits guidelines.
- C. A good array of channelizing devices, delineators, and full-length, properly placed pavement markings should be used to provide drivers with a clearly defined travel path.
- D. The design of the crossover should accommodate all vehicular traffic, including trucks and buses.
Support. Temporary traffic barriers and the excessive use of TTC devices cannot compensate for poor geometric and roadway cross-section design of crossovers.
616.7.17 Interchanges (MUTCD 6G.17)
Guidance. Access to interchange ramps on limited-access highways should be maintained even if the work space is in the lane adjacent to the ramps. Access to exit ramps should be clearly marked and delineated with channelizing devices. For long-term projects, conflicting pavement markings should be removed and new ones placed. Early coordination with officials having jurisdiction over the affected cross streets and providing emergency services should occur before ramp closings.
Option. If access is not possible, ramps may be closed by using signs and Type 3 Barricades. As the work space changes, the access area may be changed, as shown in Fig. 616.8.42 - MT. A TTC zone in the exit ramp may be handled as shown in Fig. 616.8.43 - MT.
When a work space interferes with an entrance ramp, a lane may need to be closed on the freeway (see Fig. 616.8.44 - MT). A TTC zone in the entrance ramp may require shifting ramp vehicular traffic (see Fig. 616.8.44 - MT).
616.7.18 Work in the Vicinity of a Grade Crossing (MUTCD 6G.18)
Standard. When grade crossings exist either within or in the vicinity of a TTC zone, lane restrictions, flagging, or other operations shall not create conditions where vehicles can be queued across the tracks. If the queuing of vehicles across the tracks cannot be avoided, a uniformed law enforcement officer or flagger shall be provided at the crossing to prevent vehicles from stopping on the tracks, even if automatic warning devices are in place.
Support. Fig. 616.8.46 - MT shows work in the vicinity of a grade crossing.
EPG 643.4 Railroads contains additional information regarding temporary traffic control zones in the vicinity of grade crossings.
Guidance. Early coordination with the railroad company or light rail transit agency should occur before work starts.
616.7.19 Temporary Traffic Control During Nighttime Hours (MUTCD 6G.19)
Conducting highway construction and maintenance activities during night hours could provide an advantage when traditional daytime traffic control strategies cannot achieve an acceptable balance between worker and public safety, traffic and community impact, and constructability. The two basic advantages of working at night are reduced traffic congestion and less involvement with business activities. However, the two basic conditions that must normally be met for night work to offer any advantage are reduced traffic volumes and easy set up and removal of the traffic control patterns on a nightly basis.
Shifting work activities to night hours, when traffic volumes are lower and normal business is less active, might offer an advantage in some cases, as long as the necessary work can be completed and the worksite restored to essentially normal operating conditions to carry the higher traffic volume during non-construction hours.
Although working at night might offer advantages, it also includes safety issues. Reduced visibility inherent in night work impacts the performance of both drivers and workers. Because traffic volumes are lower and congestion is minimized, speeds are often higher at night necessitating greater visibility at a time when visibility is reduced. Finally, the incidence of impaired (alcohol or drugs), fatigued, or drowsy drivers might be higher at night.
Working at night also involves other factors, including construction productivity and quality, social impacts, economics, and environmental issues. A decision to perform construction or maintenance activities at night normally involves some consideration of the advantages to be gained compared to the safety and other issues that might be impacted.
Guidance. Considering the safety issues inherent to night work, consideration should be given to enhancing traffic controls (see EPG 616.7.4) to provide added visibility and driver guidance, and increased protection for workers.
In addition to the enhancements listed in EPG 616.7.4, consideration should be given to providing additional lights and retroreflective markings to workers, work vehicles and equipment.
Option. Where reduced traffic volumes at night make it feasible, the entire roadway may be closed by detouring traffic to alternate facilities, thus removing the traffic risk from the activity area.
Guidance. Consideration should be given to stationing uniformed law enforcement officers and lighted patrol cars at night work locations where there is a concern that high speeds or impaired drivers might result in undue risks for workers or other drivers.
Standard. Except in emergencies, temporary lighting shall be provided at all flagger stations.
Support. Desired illumination levels vary depending upon the nature of the task involved. An average horizontal luminance of 5 foot-candles can be adequate for general activities. An average horizontal luminance of 10 foot-candles can be adequate for activities around equipment. Tasks requiring high levels of precision and extreme care can require an average horizontal luminance of 20 foot-candles.