616.1 General (MUTCD Chapter 6A)
From Engineering Policy Guide
Support. In EPG 616 Temporary Traffic Control, “TTC” refers to “temporary traffic control.”
Standard. The needs and control of all road users (motorists, bicyclists and pedestrians within the highway or on private roads open to public travel (see definition in EPG 900.1.13 ), including persons with disabilities in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), Title II, Paragraph 35.130) through a TTC zone shall be an essential part of highway construction, utility work, maintenance operations, and the management of traffic incidents.
For additional information refer to EPG 616.15 Transit Considerations and EPG 616.24 Traffic Control for Non-Motorized Traffic.
Support. When the normal function of the roadway, or a private road open to public travel, is suspended, TTC planning provides for continuity of the movement of motor vehicle, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic (including accessible passage); transit operations; and access (and accessibility) to property and utilities.
The primary function of TTC is to provide for the reasonably safe and effective movement of road users through or around TTC zones while reasonably protecting road users, workers, responders to traffic incidents, and equipment.
Of equal importance to the public traveling through the TTC zone is the safety of workers performing the many varied tasks within the work space. TTC zones present constantly changing conditions that are unexpected by the road user. This creates an even higher degree of vulnerability for the workers and incident management responders on or near the roadway (see EPG 616.4.3 or MUTCD 6D.03). At the same time, the TTC zone provides for the efficient completion of whatever activity interrupted the normal use of the roadway.
Consideration for road user safety, worker and responder safety, and the efficiency of road user flow is an integral element of every TTC zone, from planning through completion. A concurrent objective of the TTC is the efficient construction and maintenance of the highway and the efficient resolution of traffic incidents.
No one set of TTC devices can satisfy all conditions for a given project or incident. At the same time, defining details that would be adequate to cover all applications is not practical. Instead, EPG 616 displays typical applications that depict common applications of TTC devices. The TTC selected for each situation depends on type of highway, road user conditions, duration of operation, physical constraints, and the nearness of the work space or incident management activity to road users.
Improved road user performance might be realized through a well-prepared public relations effort that covers the nature of the work, the time and duration of its execution, the anticipated effects upon road users, and possible alternate routes and modes of travel. Such programs have been found to result in a significant reduction in the number of road users traveling through the TTC zone, which reduces the possible number of conflicts.
Operational improvements might be realized by using intelligent transportation systems (ITS) in work zones. The use in work zones of ITS technology, such as portable camera systems, highway advisory radio, variable speed limits, ramp metering, traveler information, merge guidance, and queue detection information, is aimed at increasing safety for both workers and road users and helping to ensure a more efficient traffic flow. The use in work zones of ITS technologies has been found to be effective in providing traffic monitoring and management, data collection, and traveler information.
Standard. TTC plans and devices shall be the responsibility of the authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction for guiding road users. There shall be adequate statutory authority for the implementation and enforcement of needed road user regulations, parking controls, speed zoning, and the management of traffic incidents. Such statutes shall provide sufficient flexibility in the application of TTC to meet the needs of changing conditions in the TTC zone.
Support. Temporary facilities, including pedestrian routes around worksites, are also covered by the accessibility requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) (Public Law 101-336, 104 Stat. 327, July 26, 1990. 42 U.S.C. 12101-12213 (as amended)).
Guidance. The TTC plan should start in the planning phase and continue through the design, construction, and restoration phases. The TTC plans and devices should follow the principles set forth in EPG 616. The management of traffic incidents should follow the principles set forth in EPG 616.9 Control of Traffic Through Traffic Incident Management Areas.
Option. TTC plans may deviate from the typical applications described in EPG 616.8 Typical Applications to allow for conditions and requirements of a particular site or jurisdiction.
Support. The provisions apply to both rural and urban areas. A rural highway is normally characterized by lower volumes, higher speeds, fewer turning conflicts, and less conflict with pedestrians. An urban street is typically characterized by relatively low speeds, wide ranges of road user volumes, narrower roadway lanes, frequent intersections and driveways, significant pedestrian activity, and more businesses and houses.
The determination as to whether a particular facility at a particular time of day can be considered to be a high-volume roadway or can be considered to be a low-volume roadway is made by the public agency or official having jurisdiction.